OECD programme on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills

The OECD programme on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity and Skills (AI-WIPS) - with the support of Germany – analyses the impact of AI on the labour market, skills and social policy.


The OECD is working with governments around the world to try to measure and analyse the impact of AI on training needs and labour markets. This site aims to help governments to shape AI-related policies that are responsible and human-centred, and that improve individual and societal well-being.

The third edition of the OECD International Conference on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity, and Skills took place virtually from Monday, 27 to Thursday, 30 March 2023

The 2023 International Conference on AI in Work, Innovation, Productivity, and Skills brought together leading voices from the policy, academic, business, technical and civil society communities to discuss how AI affects employment, skills, productivity, and innovation, and how policymaking can respond. Alongside the implications of ChatGPT-like tools, participants discussed new OECD evidence on the impact of AI in the workplace and education, whether AI is the solution to skills shortages, risk-based approaches for AI governance and much more.


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A portrait of AI adopters across countries

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PapersOECDApril 2023

This report analyses the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in firms across 11 countries. Based on harmonised statistical code (AI diffuse) applied to official firm-level surveys, it finds that the use of AI is prevalent in ICT and Professional Serv...

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Advancing accountability in AI

OECD Digital Economy PapersOECDFebruary 2023

This report presents research and findings on accountability and risk in AI systems by providing an overview of how risk-management frameworks and the AI system lifecycle can be integrated to promote trustworthy AI. It also explores processes and tec...

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Identifying artificial intelligence actors using online data

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PapersOECDFebruary 2023

This paper uses information collected and provided by GlassAI to analyse the characteristics and activities of companies and universities in Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States that mention keywords related to Artificial Intelli...

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Identifying and characterising AI adopters

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PapersOECDDecember 2022

This work employs a novel approach to identify and characterise firms adopting Artificial Intelligence (AI), using different sources of large microdata. Focusing on the United Kingdom, the analysis combines data on Intellectual Property Rights, websi...

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Using Artificial Intelligence in the workplace

OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working PapersOECDJuly 2022

Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are changing workplaces. AI systems have the potential to improve workplaces, but ensuring trustworthy use of AI in the workplace means addressing the ethical risks it can raise. This paper reviews possible risks ...


Artificial Intelligence and Employment – New Evidence from Occupations Most Exposed to AI

Policy brief on future of workOECDDecember 2021

In recent years, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has made significant progress in areas like information ordering, memorisation, perceptual speed, and deductive reasoning – all of which are related to non-routine, cognitive tasks. As a result, the occup...

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Artificial intelligence and employment: New cross-country evidence

OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working PapersOECDDecember 2021

Recent years have seen impressive advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and this has stoked renewed concern about the impact of technological progress on the labour market, including on worker displacement. This paper looks at the possible links b...

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Opportunities and drawbacks of using artificial intelligence for training

OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working PapersOECDDecember 2021

Technological developments are one of the major forces behind the need for retraining, but they can also be part of the solution. In particular, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to increase training participation, including among curren...

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AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1 : Capabilities and Assessments

Educational Research and InnovationOECDNovember 2021

Artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics are major breakthrough technologies that are transforming the economy and society. The OECD’s Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Skills (AIFS) project is developing a programme to assess the capabiliti...

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Who develops AI-related innovations, goods and services? A firm-level analysis

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy PapersOECDSeptember 2021

This study proposes an exploratory analysis of the characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) “actors”. It focuses on entities that deploy AI-related technologies or introduce AI-related goods and services on large international markets. It buil...

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Artificial intelligence companies, goods and services – A trademark-based analysis

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PaperOECDMay 2021

This work proposes an experimental methodology to identify and measure artificial intelligence (AI)-related trademarks. It aims to shed light on the extent to which (new) companies and products appearing on the market rely on, exploit or propose AI-r...

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Demand for AI Skills in Jobs: Evidence from online job postings

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PaperOECDMarch 2021

This report presents new evidence about occupations requiring artificial intelligence (AI)-related competencies, based on online job posting data and previous work on identifying and measuring developments in AI. It finds that the total number of AI-...

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AI measurement in ICT usage surveys

OECD Digital Economy PapersOECDMarch 2021

This paper takes stock of official statistics on AI use in firms collected through ICT usage surveys. Its aim is to highlight statistically sound data that can be used to guide policymakers and other stakeholders in the complex field of AI. It provid...

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The impact of Artificial Intelligence on the labour market: What do we know so far?

OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working PapersOECDJanuary 2021

This literature review takes stock of what is known about the impact of artificial intelligence on the labour market, including the impact on employment and wages, how AI will transform jobs and skill needs, and the impact on the work environment. Th...

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Identifying and measuring developments in artificial intelligence: Making the impossible possible

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working PapersOECDMay 2020

This paper identifies and measures developments in science, algorithms and technologies related to artificial intelligence (AI). Using information from scientific publications, open source software (OSS) and patents, it finds a marked increase in AI-...

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The human capital behind AI: Jobs and skills demand from online job postings

OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy PapersOECDSeptember 2021

Building on recent OECD work, this paper analyses the skills sets (“skills bundles”) demanded in artificial intelligence (AI)-related online job postings. The analysis uses Burning Glass Technologies’ data for the United States and the United Kingdom...

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Artificial Intelligence in Society

OECDJune 2019

The artificial intelligence (AI) landscape has evolved significantly from 1950 when Alan Turing first posed the question of whether machines can think. Today, AI is transforming societies and economies. It promises to generate productivity gains, imp...

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